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October 02, 2015

Agricultural Science Essay & Obj Questions & Answers

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No.4c Added, Scrol Down To See It

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1b)The soil profile is defined as a vertical section
of the soil from the ground surface downwards to
where the soil meets the underlying rock.
1c)
i. Biotic factors and the prevalence of pests and
diseases. Site selection may consider the natural
population of certain organisms like bees and
other pollinators. Where the agriculture venture
involves the production of civet coffee or kape
alamid, farmlands adjacent to forested areas may
be preferred. But places with a long history of the
presence of serious pests and diseases may be
avoided. Likewise, caution should be exercised in
choosing farm sites dominated by weeds which
are difficult to eradicate.
ii. Accessibility. A farm that is managed as a
business must have access to supplies,
equipment, and the market. It must be provided
with infrastructures (e.g. roads) and, if the
product is intended to be marketed elsewhere,
shipping facilities or airports. Moreover, there is a
general preference for farms in familiar locations
and which are easily accessible to owner-
managers.
iii. Labor supply and cost. Skilled labor must be
available at reasonable cost. Otherwise, laborers
from other parts of the country may have to be
imported.
iv. Bureaucracy and investment benefits. Site
selection favors those locations where
bureaucratic red tape is minimal so that business
permits and other papers if so required can be
processed with haste. Likewise, countries and
localities which offer incentives, like tax
exemption, are preferred.
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(2a)
(i) Climate:
-Rainfall
-Temperature
-Wind
(ii) Biotic:
-parasite
-Diseases
-Pests
(iii) Edaphic:
-Soil Texture
-Soil nutrient composition
-Soil pH
(2b)
I. ADVANTAGES:
(i) It increases crop yield
(ii) It reduces demand for labour
(iii) It saves time
(iv) It saves energy
(v) Encourages multiple cropping
II. DISADVANTAGES:
(i) Adoption of certain machines will lead to
unemployment.
(ii) High procurement and maintenance cost
(iii) Depreciation charges are high; this will
reduce the profit.
(iv) Machines are subject to break-down and lie
idle when electricity fails.
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(4a) Brooding refers to the period immediately
after hatch when special care and attention must
be given to chicks to ensure their health and
survival.
(4b) TABULATE:
Ruminants:
(i) Ruminants have stomachs with four chambers
that release nutrients from food by fermenting it
before digestion.
(ii) Most ruminants, have hardened gums instead
of upper front teeth, and all have split hooves.
Non-ruminants:
(i) Absence of stomachs with four chambers.
(ii) Presence of upper front teeth
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(4a) Brooding refers to the period immediately after hatch when special care and attention must be given to chicks to ensure their health and survival.

(4b) TABULATE:
Ruminants:
(i) Ruminants have stomachs with four chambers that release nutrients from food by fermenting it before digestion.

(ii) Most ruminants, have hardened gums instead of upper front teeth, and all have split hooves.
Non-ruminants:
(i) Absence of stomachs with four chambers.
(ii) Presence of upper front teeth

(4c)
(i) To reduce spread of diseases
(ii) To prevent overcrowding in livestock
(iii) To reinforce or exaggerate desirable
characteristics
(iv) To remove undesirable characteristics from
the group
(v) To remove inferior breed from the group for a
uniform growth

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